In an unprecedented study of nearly 1 million Texas public secondary school students followed for more than six years, a report released by The Council of State Governments (CSG) Justice Center in partnership with the Public Policy Research Institute of Texas A&M University, showed the extent and damage of suspensions and expulsions. Shortly, thereafter, Education Secretary Duncan and Attorney General Holder announced the launch of a collaborative project – the Supportive School Discipline Initiative (Initiative) – between the U.S. Departments of Education (ED) and Justice (DOJ) to support the use of school discipline practices that foster safe, supportive, and productive learning environments while keeping students in school.